The Contribution of Information and Communication Technology to Social Inclusion and Exclusion during the Appropriation of Open Educational Resources

Lancelord Siphamandla Mncube, Maureen Tanner, Wallace Chigona


The information and communication technology (ICT) comprehends with the adoption and the development of open educational resources (OER) in the educational spheres. The vast existing body of knowledge portrays several positive aspects of ICT, as it is an enabler in various domains. Hence, the combination of ICT and OER negative aspects have been, as yet, under-investigated. This study aimed to investigate both the social inclusion and the social exclusion of ICT with users appropriating of OER in open distance e-learning (ODeL) institutions. The qualitative approach was used to interpret the inclusion and exclusion factors concerned. The Model of Technology Appropriation was applied as a main theoretical underpinning of the study. The study findings show that ICT has both positive and negative impacts on the appropriation of OER. The various impacts are mostly recognisable in those developing countries where inequalities still exist, as some of the findings postulate that the innovation that is enabled through the utilisation of ICT tends to favour a select minority of rich people. For many students, ICT continues to perpetuate social exclusion. ICT innovation, including OER, has yet to fully support societal needs. Instead, it continues to promote the agendas of the global north. The study recommends the development initiatives to close the current gaps which contribute to the social exclusion. For instance, the installation of fibre optic in most deprived townships and villages can assist in eliminating inequalities associated with ICT infrastructure. 

Full Text:




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Lancelord Siphamandla Mncube

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Higher Education
ISSN 1927-6044 (Print) ISSN 1927-6052 (Online) Email:

Copyright © Sciedu Press

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.