Active Learning and Flipped Classroom, Hand in Hand Approach to Improve Students Learning in Human Anatomy and Physiology

Maria Entezari, Mohammad Javdan


Because Human Anatomy and Physiology (A&P), a gateway course for allied health majors, has high dropout rates nationally, it is challenging to find a successful pedagogical intervention.   Reports on the effect of integration of flipped classrooms and whether it improves learning are contradictory for different disciplines. Thus many educators are reluctant to explore the value of flipped classrooms. Therefore, in the present study we compare incorporating flipped classroom and minimal class discussion (control group) with flipped classroom and active learning activities (experimental group) in A&P and their impacts on both students’ exam performance and their satisfaction with the course. Assessments consisted of a survey of students’ attitudes and a comparison of exam performance in experimental and control groups. Exam performance among the students in flipped-classroom and active learning activities improved significantly relative to the control group [Mean ± SD: (76.93±18.33 vs 67.8±18.81), p<0.001.  Student attitude, in which students rated the efficiency of pedagogical learning on a five-point Likert scale, was positive: the majority of students strongly preferred active-learning activities that were incorporated in the flipped-classroom. Students indicated that these activities helped them learn better and to connect the materials to the goals of their future careers (73.88% and 79.77% respectively). Therefore, we conclude that flipped classroom coupled with active learning strategies can improve students’ performance and attitude in the introductory A&P course.


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International Journal of Higher Education
ISSN 1927-6044 (Print) ISSN 1927-6052 (Online) Email:

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