Attribution and Motivation: Gender, Ethnicity, and Religion Differences among Indonesian University Students

Novita Widiawati Sutantoputri, Helen M. G. Watt


The study explores the possibilities of gender, ethnicity, and religion differences on attributions (locus of control, stability, personal and external control), motivational goals (learning, performance approach, performance avoidance, and work avoidance), self-efficacy, intelligence beliefs, religiosity, racial/ethnic identity, and academic performance (mid-term test, final test, and GPA scores) within the Indonesian university settings. Racial/ethnic identity had three dimensions: private regard, ethnic importance, and social embeddedness; whilst religiosity had two dimensions: religious behaviour and intrinsic religiosity. 1,006 students (73.8% Native Indonesians and 24.8% Chinese Indonesians) from three public and two private universities participated. Significant gender differences were found on work avoidance goals. Ethnic and religion differences were found on religiosity. Gender and religion interactions resulted significant differences on attribution (locus of control), religiosity (intrinsic religiosity), and academic performance (final test score).

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International Journal of Higher Education
ISSN 1927-6044 (Print) ISSN 1927-6052 (Online) Email:

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