Translation and validation of the traditional Chinese NLN educational practices questionnaire, simulation design scale and student satisfaction and self-confidence in learning

Baljit Kaur Gill


Background and objective: Globally, the use of clinical simulation has been incorporated in different nursing programs. It is important to evaluate simulation using reliable and valid instruments. Using the same instrument helps to evaluate simulation under the same criteria both nationally and internationally. The National League of Nursing developed three simulation scales which is widely used in different countries and demonstrates a good reliability and validity. Nevertheless, it is only available in English. The aim of the study was to translate the original NLN simulation evaluation scales into Traditional Chinese and evaluate its psychometric properties.

Methods: Beaton and colleague’s (2000) cross-cultural adaptation guidelines was adopted. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α) and Corrected item-total correlation was used to determine the internal reliability. Haccoun’s single group technique was used to assess the equivalent of the scale in the original and the translated version. Lastly, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was used to determine the factor structure and Intra-Class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) to test the stability of translated scale.

Results: Nine simulation experts from Hong Kong, Mainland China, Singapore and Taiwan confirmed translation of the NLN scales (EPQ-C, SDS-C, SSCL-C). Cronbach’s alpha of all subscales and overall scales were acceptable (0.72-0.89). The intra-language, inter-language and temporal inter-language cross correlations between the original and translated scales were correlated (p < 0.01). ICC of the translated scales ranges from good to excellent (0.78-0.91). Lastly, EFA also demonstrated the items were theoretically coherent (≥ 0.40) and have the same factor structure as the original English version.

Conclusions: Traditional Chinese NLN simulation evaluation scales demonstrated strong validity and reliability.

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Journal of Nursing Education and Practice

ISSN 1925-4040 (Print)   ISSN 1925-4059 (Online)

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