Bahraini men living with heart failure: A phenomenological study

Shereen Mohamed Mohamed, Catherine O'Neill


Background: Heart failure (HF) is a worldwide chronic and progressive condition. HF symptoms affect an individual’s life perspectives, and create dramatic changes in their everyday living routines. Qualitative studies showed that HF symptoms were associated with reported low quality of life, reduced physical activities, and altered social interactions and relationships. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of men under the age of 65 diagnosed with HF living in the Kingdom of Bahrain.
Methods: An interpretive phenomenological approach was used. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with six men under the age of 65 who were diagnosed with HF for a period of not less than a year. The interviews were conducted in Arabic, and then translated and transcribed into English. Smith’s framework was drawn on for data analysis.
Results: Three main themes emerged: the physical burden of the illness; the psychosocial aspects of the illness and living with HF. The findings showed that the physical symptoms shaped men’s everyday work activities and also their resting and sleeping patterns. Participants expressed feelings of frustration, anger, and sadness following the diagnosis and recounted how their masculinity roles changed at home and in society. Families played a major role giving support to the men, who utilized different coping strategies, as lifestyle and behavioral modifications were adopted. Keeping faith and a belief in God, coupled with social support was a thread that connected all participants coping strategies. The authors recommend that educational programs for men who are diagnosed with HF and their families would help them cope with this chronic illness.
Conclusions: Heart failure patients experience dramatic changes in their life. An understanding of the challenges they are facing in their daily living enables them, and those who care for them, both families and nurses, to creatively assist them live with the difficulties encountered with HF.

Full Text:




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Clinical Nursing Studies
ISSN 2324-7940(Print)   ISSN 2324-7959(Online)

Copyright © Sciedu Press

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.